In this book we will work through the motivation and technical details behind timely dataflow, which is both a system for implementing distributed streaming computation, and if you look at it right, a way to structure computation generally.
Timely dataflow arose from work at Microsoft Research, where a group of us worked on building scalable, distributed data processing platforms. Our experience was that other systems did not provide both expressive computation and high performance. Efficient systems would only let you write restricted programs, and expressive systems employed synchronous and otherwise inefficient execution.
Our goal was to provide a not-unpleasant experience where you could write sophisticated streaming computations (e.g. with iterative control flow), which nonetheless compile down to systems that execute with only a modicum of overhead and synchronization.